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Sign up for a free trial. What are the Java Foundation Classes? How is the JFC different from other framework classes from third-parties? Are the Java Foundation Classes easy to use? How do the Java Foundation Classes make developers' lives easier? Are the Java Foundation Classes supported by major Java tools vendors?
Do the Java Foundation Classes run better on one platform than others? What specific components are available in JFC? What specific foundation services are available in JFC? What does the JFC-based application user interface look like? What is the difference between lightweight components and peerless components? What does JFC cost? What is Swing? What is Java Accessibility? What is Java 2D? Why was the Java look and feel developed?
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Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have trouble understanding a fundamental concept in Java 2D. To give a specific example: One can customize a swing component via implementing it's own version of the method paintComponent Graphics g Graphics is available to the body of the method.
Question: What is exactly this Graphics object, I mean how it is related to the object that has the method paintComponent? Ok, I understand that you can do something like:.
To get a gray oval painted.Ls swap guide
What I can not understand is how is the Graphics object related to the component and the canvas. How is this drawing actually done?
2D Graphics in Java
Another example:. UPDATE: I understand that I must override paint to give in the Graphics g object the hints required to do the repaint and that I do not have to create a Graphics object as one will be given by platform. What happens after that is what I can not understand.
Does it get stored in a queue and there is a association among g and each component? So the framework uses each g of each component to paint it one at a time? How does this work? Any help on this is highly welcome. The graphics object is the wrapper for a platform handle giving access to a physical device, like the screen. It's valid for the time when "paint" is executed only, you can't store it and reuse it later. It is a resource managed by the "toolkit".This is Java 2D tutorial.
It is aimed at beginners. This tutorial will teach you basics of programming in Java 2D. The images used in this tutorial can be downloaded here.
There are two different computer graphics: vector and raster graphics. Raster bitmap graphics represent images as a collection of pixels. Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves or polygons to represent images. These primitives are created using mathematical equations. Both types of computer graphics have advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of vector graphics are:. AWT was the original toolkit for creating user interfaces and graphics in Java. Java 2D is a powerful technology. It can be used to create rich user interfaces, games, animations, multimedia applications, or various special effects.
The custom painting code should be placed in the paintComponent method. This method is invoked when it is time to paint. The paint subsystem first calls the paint method.Mirascreen apk
This method invokes the following three methods: paintComponent paintBorder paintChildren In specific cases, we might want to override the paintBorder or the paintChildren methods.
In most cases, we override the paintComponent method. The paintComponent's sole parameter is a Graphics object. It exposes a number of methods for drawing 2D shapes and obtaining information about the application's graphics environment.
The Graphics2D class extends the Graphics class to provide more sophisticated control over geometry, coordinate transformations, color management, and text layout.
The Graphics object is initialized before it is passed to the paintComponent method, and then it is turned over to the paintBorder and paintChildren methods. This reuse improves performance but it may lead to problems if the painting code permanently changes the Graphics state.
Therefore, we must either restore the original settings or work with a copy of the Graphics object. The copy is created with the Graphics's create method; it must be later released with the dispose method. In practical terms, the copy of the Graphics object does not need to be created if we set the following properties: font, colour, and rendering hints. For all other properties, especially clip, composite operations, and transformationswe must create a copy of the Graphics object and later dispose it.
We draw a text on a JPanel component.So far, we have covered the basic programming constructs such as variables, data types, decision, loop, array and method and introduced the important concept of Object-Oriented Programming OOP.
You can create high-level abstract data types called classes to mimic real-life things. These classes are self-contained and are reusable.
Writing your own graphics classes and re-inventing the wheels is mission impossible! These graphics classes, developed by expert programmers, are highly complex and involve many advanced design patterns. However, re-using them are not so difficult, if you follow the API documentation, samples and templates provided.
I shall assume that you have a good grasp of OOP, including composition, inheritance, polymorphism, abstract class and interface; otherwise, read the earlier articles. I will describe another important OO concept called nested class or inner class in this article. For 3D graphics, read my 3D articles.
Java: User Interface Components and 2D Graphics
AWT is huge! It consists of 12 packages of classes Swing is even bigger, with 18 packages of classes as of JDK 8. Fortunately, only 2 packages - java. AWT provides a platform-independent and device-independent interface to develop graphic programs that runs on all platforms, including Windows, Mac OS X, and Unixes.
In the above figure, there are three containers: a Frame and two Panel s. A Frame is the top-level container of an AWT program. A Panel is a rectangular area used to group related GUI components in a certain layout. In the above figure, the top-level Frame contains two Panel s. There are five components: a Label providing descriptiona TextField for users to enter textand three Button s for user to trigger certain programmed actions. In a GUI program, a component must be kept in a container.
You need to identify a container to hold the components. Every container has a method called add Component c.Setting up the JFrame
A container say c can invoke c. For example. GUI components are also called controls e. Each GUI program has a top-level container. Secondary containers are placed inside a top-level container or another secondary container.Joe Chung Monmouth U. User Interface and Interactive Components. Drawing Images external images, e. Also, different bugs in the AWT user interface library exist on different platforms.
Swing - Consistent user experience across platforms; less dependent on underlying platform, as compared to AWT. Container - A user interface component that can contain other user interface components such as buttons and text fields. Toolkit - Class that gets system-dependent information e. The top level window that is, a window that is not contained inside another window.
Event source the widgets : button, text box, radio button, etc. Event listener - An object to which a component has delegated the task of handling a particular kind of event. The event source sends out event objects to all registered listeners when that event occurs.Low code app development google
The listener objects will then use the information in the event object to determine their reaction to the event. Require FocusListener, KeyListener interfaces. Device space - The coordinate system of an output device, such as a screen, window, or a printer; device dependent.
The necessary conversions between user space and device space are performed automatically during rendering. Very limited drawing options e. More sophisticated control over geometry, coordinate transformations, color management, and text layout. The Java standard library of two dimensional geometric shapes such as lines, ellipses, and quadrilaterals.
Geometric shapes are organized in an object-oriented fashion. To draw a shape, create an object of a class that implements the Shape interface and then call the draw or fill method of the Graphics2D class.The Component class is the abstract superclass of the nonmenu-related Abstract Window Toolkit components.
Class Component can also be extended directly to create a lightweight component. A lightweight component is a component that is not associated with a native window. On the contrary, a heavyweight component is associated with a native window. The isLightweight method may be used to distinguish between the two kinds of the components.
Lightweight and heavyweight components may be mixed in a single component hierarchy. However, for correct operating of such a mixed hierarchy of components, the whole hierarchy must be valid.
Serialization It is important to note that only AWT listeners which conform to the Serializable protocol will be saved when the object is stored. If an AWT object has listeners that aren't marked serializable, they will be dropped at writeObject time.
Developers will need, as always, to consider the implications of making an object serializable. One situation to watch out for is this: import java. The problem is that the listener is serializable by coincidence, not by design.
To separate the decisions about MyApp and the ActionListener being serializable one can use a nested class, as in the following example: import java.
Serializable; class MyApp implements java. BaselineResizeBehavior Enumeration of the common ways the baseline of a component can change as the size changes. BltBufferStrategy Inner class for blitting offscreen surfaces to a component. FlipBufferStrategy Inner class for flipping buffers on a component. As of JDK version 1. Rectangle bounds Deprecated. Color getBackground Gets the background color of this component. BaselineResizeBehavior getBaselineResizeBehavior Returns an enum indicating how the baseline of the component changes as the size changes.
Rectangle getBounds Gets the bounds of this component in the form of a Rectangle object. ComponentListener  getComponentListeners Returns an array of all the component listeners registered on this component.
ComponentOrientation getComponentOrientation Retrieves the language-sensitive orientation that is to be used to order the elements or text within this component. Cursor getCursor Gets the cursor set in the component. FocusListener  getFocusListeners Returns an array of all the focus listeners registered on this component. Font getFont Gets the font of this component. Color getForeground Gets the foreground color of this component. Graphics getGraphics Creates a graphics context for this component.
HierarchyBoundsListener  getHierarchyBoundsListeners Returns an array of all the hierarchy bounds listeners registered on this component. HierarchyListener  getHierarchyListeners Returns an array of all the hierarchy listeners registered on this component. InputMethodListener  getInputMethodListeners Returns an array of all the input method listeners registered on this component. InputMethodRequests getInputMethodRequests Gets the input method request handler which supports requests from input methods for this component.
KeyListener  getKeyListeners Returns an array of all the key listeners registered on this component. Locale getLocale Gets the locale of this component. Point getLocation Gets the location of this component in the form of a point specifying the component's top-left corner. Point getLocationOnScreen Gets the location of this component in the form of a point specifying the component's top-left corner in the screen's coordinate space.
Dimension getMaximumSize Gets the maximum size of this component. Dimension getMinimumSize Gets the mininimum size of this component.There are a number packages provided under the java 2D package, such as awt, awt. Java 2D API supports a uniform rendering model across all the different types of devices is it a display monitor or a printer.
During the development of the program, rendering works, in the same way, irrespective of the end component whether it is a printer or a display monitor. The package automatically detects and changes the Graphics context based on the end component. Graphics2D which extends the Graphics class to provide support for enhanced graphics and rendering features.
JFrame; import java. WHITE ; graphics. Graphics class provides different methods for drawing different graphical objects. The most common methods are drawStringdrawImage and fillXxx.
These methods can be broadly divided into two categories.Victorinox alox orange
The first type of Graphics method is, it provides draw and fills features that enable the Users to render the basic shapes, text, and images. The other type of method is for attribute settings which lets you change the effect of how the drawing appears in the console. Methods such as setColor and setFont lets you decide how the draw and fill renders. The graphics context is responsible to maintain the state or attributes such as the current painting color, the current font.
Double 6, 31, 61, ; graphics2D. Double31, 76,51, 51 ; graphics2D. CYAN ; graphics2D. Double30, 75,0,Arc2D. BOLD, 18, Color. Double center. WindowAdapter; import java. WindowEvent; import java. FontRenderContext; import java. TextLayout; import java. AffineTransform; import java. Rectangle2D; import java. Now that we have reached the end of the article I hope you guys must have a fair idea of what you can achieve with the Java 2D graphics.
Honestly, the capability of Java 2D classes are not limited to simple shapes and figures, it can be extended to design complex figures and geometrical shapes and mostly depends on how are you leveraging the existing classes and methods. This is a guide to 2D Graphics in Java. Here we discuss the Introduction to 2D Graphics in Java along with code implementation and output.
Java Programming Tutorial
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